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General scientific definition

"A systematic influence of initially presented numerical values on subsequent judgments of uncertain quantities, even when presented numbers are obviously arbitrary and therefore unambiguously irrelevant." (Teovanović, 2019)

"Different starting points yield different estimates, which are biased toward the initial values." (Tversky & Kahneman 1974)

Importantly, the inital values need not be numbers but may also be an initial evaluation of a specific person, phenomenon, thing, etc.

Relevant substantive theories

- Two systems thinking (Kahneman 2011)



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