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General scientific definition

By enacting laws, rules, guidelines, indicators, etc. citizens, employees, employers, health workers, teachers, etc. learn what is important for their superiors and what is expected from them.

Relevant substantive theories

  • The expressive function of law (McAdams, 2000)

  • Campbell’s law (Campbell, 1979)


  • McAdams, R. H. (2000). An attitudinal theory of expressive law. Oregon Law Review, 79, 339. 

  • Campbell, D. T. (1979). Assessing the impact of planned social change. Evaluation and Program Planning, 2(1), 67-90. doi:


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